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Gynaecological conditions

At a glance

There are many women’s gynaecological conditions where ultrasound may be helpful.

Here are some of the conditions where our gynaecological scans can assist in investigations:

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cancer screening

Premature ovarian failure (POF)

Polycystic ovaries (PCOS)

Fibroids & Polyps

To learn more about these conditions click on the in depth titles on the left.

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are a common condition which can have a number of symptoms. They are often accompanied by irregular or absent periods and pelvic pain.

The cysts are measured and examined by ultrasound scan for size, shape and texture.

You may need additional blood test before we can make a final diagnosis.

This scan can be performed at any time, but is best done during the first or last week of your cycle.

Ovarian cancer screening

Ovarian cancer describes an abnormal growth and division of cells in the ovary. Those most at risk are women with a family history of ovarian cancer or related cancers such as breast, bowel and endometrial cancer.

An ultrasound scan can screen for ovarian cancer by using a tumour marker test and further scans to assess development. Diagnosis is confirmed through additional tests which your consultant can discuss with you.

First symptoms of ovarian cancer can include stomach and back pain, increased abdominal girth, sickness and bloating of the stomach. This scan is preferably performed at the beginning of your cycle.

For more detailed information please see our ovarian cancer information page.

Premature ovarian failure (POF)

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is also known as early menopause or primary ovarian insufficiency. It can affect young women, quite naturally, or may be the result of cancer treatment with radio or chemotherapy.

The cause of a naturally occurring premature ovarian failure is not well understood but is certainly related to genetic changes. There is good evidence that certain markers of ovarian capacity, such as antimullerian hormone or the number of antral follicles in the ovary, can predict early menopause which is why ultrasound scanning and a subsequent blood test can be useful.

Most women will be referred by their GP, but others may choose to self-refer and use the ultrasound scan to check their potential fertility. The scan requires an examination of the ovaries at the beginning of the cycle followed by a blood test to measure antimullerian hormone (AMH).

Polycystic ovaries (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread condition affecting approximately one in five women and is a common cause of infertility. Symptoms include weight gain, irregular or absent periods, acne and excessive hair growth – due to high levels of male-type hormones.

Ultrasound scanning can identify the multiple cysts on ovaries associated with PCOS and suggest appropriate treatment in the future.

The scan is ideally done during your menstrual periods and a blood test will then identify your hormone levels to confirm diagnosis.

Fibroids & Polyps

These are benign (non-cancerous) uterine growths – tissue enlargement in the uterus. While they are benign they can cause problems such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage and they can be painful and cause irregular bleeding.

An ultrasound can identify the presence, location and size of fibroids or polyps.

Many patients are referred to us by their GP, others may be aware of a family history or experienced symptoms and simply wish to know if they are affected.

More gynaecological conditions

  • Adenomyosis
  • Endometriosis
  • Post menopausal bleeding
  • Threatened miscarriage
  • Missed miscarriage
  • Delayed miscarriage
  • Complete miscarriage
  • Incomplete miscarriage
  • Retained products of conception
  • Polycystic ovaries
  • Uterine fibroids (Leiomyomata)
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Hydrosalpinges/Hydrosalpinx
  • Hematosalpinx
  • Pyosalpinx
  • Dysmenorrhoea
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Missed abortion
  • Septic abortion
  • Pelvic mass
  • Adnexal mass
  • Pelvic pain
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Uterine synechiae
  • Intrauterine adhesions
  • Asherman’s syndrome
  • Cervical atresia
  • Uterine atrophy
  • Sclerotic endometrium
  • Ovarian tumour
  • Tubo-ovarian abscess
  • Benign ovarian neoplasms/cysts/tumours
  • Functional ovarian neoplasms/cysts/tumours
  • Ovarian cyst accidents
  • Acute vaginal bleeding
  • Congenital uterine abnormality
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Endometrial polyp
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Intrauterine contraceptive device
  • Endocervical polyp
  • Cervical incompetence


Do you have a question about any of these conditions?